In plants, a seed is a specialized part of the plant. It contains the reproductive tissues of the plant. The endosperm of the seed helps in the growth and development of the embryo.
Soybean seed protein content
Soybean seeds are rich in protein, which is an important component of animal feed. In addition to protein content, soybean seed is also rich in oil. It contains unsaturated oleic acid (23%), linoleic acid (53%), linolenic acid (8%), palmitic acid (12%) and stearic acid (4%).
The proteins of soybean seeds are highly valued for their growth promoting properties and for their potential as food ingredients. However, the protein/oil ratio of soybean seed is low. This difference could be a result of many factors.
Angiosperm seeds contain three genetically distinct constituents
The angiosperms are the largest group of plants in the kingdom Plantae. They account for over 80 percent of the known green plant species on Earth. Most angiosperms are trees and vines, but they can also be tiny herbs or parasitic plants. Angiosperms are essential for the existence of many living organisms.
Flowering plants belonging to the angiosperm family develop a complex reproductive organ in the center of the flower. This organ is called the gynoecium. It is composed of numerous tissues, including the ovary, ovules, and male and female gametophytes.
Endosperm inside the seeds helps in the growth and development of the embryo
Endosperm is a nourishing tissue that surrounds an embryo in seeds of most flowering plants. It contains proteins, starch, and oils. In some species, it also stores nutrition. However, it is only one of the three components of a typical seed.
Endosperm is derived from the parent plant by a double fertilization event. This happens when two sperm nuclei enter the interior of the female gametophyte. The sperm and egg nuclei then fuse with a central cell that is inherited from the female gametophyte.
Fungi destroy seed
Fungi are a group of microscopic organisms that damage plants by attacking their cells. They are responsible for a wide range of serious plant diseases. Their numbers are increasing, and are spreading outside of their natural climate zones. These fungi are responsible for killing one fifth of the world’s food crops each year.
There are two categories of fungi: those that are saprophytes and those that are pathogenic. The fungi that are saprophytes enter a plant through wounds that occur during harvesting, pruning, or other forms of mechanical damage. Pathogenic fungi can infect internal tissues in seeds, causing damage to the embryo, endosperm, and reproductive structures.
Soybean seed oil accumulates between 24 and 42 days after flowering
Soybean (Glycine max, Gm) is one of the most important oil seeds and is widely used in the food industry. Its production contributed 59% of world oilseed production in 2014.
Seed oil accumulation is usually rapid, occurring between 24 and 42 days after flowering. The rate is dependent on the fatty acid composition of the soybean. Typical soybean oil contains 20% oleic acid (C18:1), 4% stearic acid (C18:0), and 13% palmitic acid (C16:0).
During seed development, the concentration of FAs is affected by the environment. For example, drought stress leads to a decrease in lipid concentrations. Similarly, heat stress inhibits synthesis of major components. Therefore, it is important to understand the environmental factors that affect the quality of the soybean seed.
Neem plant leaves act as insect repellent
Neem is a plant from the family Meliaceae. It grows in South Asia and Africa. The leaves of the plant have long been used to repel insect pests.
Neem is a plant that can help with controlling insect infestations. The oil from its seeds acts as an effective insecticide. This oil is safe to use on indoor plants and can even be applied on pets.
Neem seeds contain a chemical called azadirachtin. It is the main component of neem oil and is responsible for the plant’s insecticidal activity. Azadirachtin interferes with the pests’ hormones and reproductive cycles.
Fertilization of angiosperms
Double fertilization is a unique feature of angiosperms. This is a complex and elaborate mechanism in flowering plants. It stimulates the development of the ovary and produces an embryo sac.
During double fertilization, the male gametes from a pollen grain fuse with the female gametes in the ovule. This results in a diploid zygote. The female gametophyte develops inside the ovule and provides nourishment to the developing embryo. Throughout the process, cell-cell communication is essential.
The endosperm, the direct nutrition for the embryo, accumulates proteins, oil, and other nutrients. These nutrients are stored in the nutritive tissue of the seed until it matures. In some plant species, this storage tissue has an evolutionary advantage.
Common seeds of commerce
While it is not necessarily a scientific study, it is nevertheless a good time to take stock of the items in your cabinet. There are plenty of high quality seeds available on the market. If your crop is prone to insect pests, consider planting your seeds in a container for optimal control. This will make sure your crops don’t go to seed, and in the process, you will enjoy fresher fruits in the long run. Of course, not all containers are created equal.