How Do Seeds Grow Into Plants?
A seed is a tiny embryo enclosed in a hard protective covering. The development of that seed from a zygote is part of that process of reproduction by seed-bearing plants, which include the gymnosperms and the angiosperm. The gametes, or male and female reproductive systems, are present in the same plant. Male gametes are present in either one set of leaves or both sets. Female gametes are present in only one set of leaves. In other words, a female tomato plant will produce two seeds.
The process of reproduction begins with the movement of gametes through the somatic cells of the body. After fertilization, this move to the dermal layers and stay there to form the seed coat. As the seeds grow, they pass through the various phases of growth and begin to accumulate chloroplasts, which give rise to starch and later chloroplast layers, which eventually shape the full seed coat. During this process, the chromosomes are continually passed on from one generation to another. If, for some reason, one set of chromosomes malfunctions, it can often be corrected by introducing new chromosomes from a genetically normal plant into the susceptible tomato plant. This way, the affected genes are corrected and, hopefully, the resulting fruit will grow into a well-developed, quality product.
Tomato seeds are similar to eggs in their structure. When fertilized, the developing seed coat coats are thick and sticky. The developing ovule is a round lump made up of only a few cells. When the ovule reaches its final form – a nub (itself an embryo) – it is released from its shell. The nub itself may be formed inside the mother plant’s uterus (where it forms the embryo of a fruit) or outside in the Fallopian tubes where it hatches as an egg.
Tomato seeds are contained within a thick chitin coating that resists dampness and heat. That means that exposure to direct sunlight or artificial light will not harm them. On the other hand, tomato seeds contain a protein, called tetracycline, that is harmful when introduced into the plant’s digestive system. This protein kills off all the healthy cells in the plant before the seeds can germinate. Once the seeds are germinating, they must be dispersed so that they can develop into tomatoes.
In order to disperse the seed, a process called abrasion occurs. This involves breaking up the seed coat into very small pieces. The pieces are then spread out over the growing tomato plant to allow them to travel down the plant’s stems and roots. This process, along with the effects of light, air, and water, hastens the rate of seed dispersal and the eventual flowering of the fruit.
Cultivators, which are pieces of equipment that force seeds into the soil, have two types of machinery. The first set of tools sprays seeds into the ground. The second type of equipment breaks down the seeds into their endosperm. Which endosperm type each plant has depends on the variety of plant that it grows up with.
Tomato plants grow up as seeds, called phloem, in bundles called rhizomes. The rhizome ends up inside the seed coat (the seed coating is actually a thin layer of living matter). The process of germination occurs when the embryo, or germ, that forms in the seed coat expands to form a new plant. The process of fertilization occurs when the new plant grows and spreads out over a relatively large area.
In order to create a new plant from an existing seed, you would need two things: a living seed and a fertilized ovule. A living seed is called a gamete. A fertilized ovule is called an oocyte. The process of making a new plant begins with the observation that a gamete falls into the vase containing the fertilized ovule. The ovule will then undergo a process called meiosis, which is the same thing that happens when an egg cell reaches its nucleus.