Germination of Young Plants
A seed is actually an embryo enclosed in a hard protective covering. The complete growth of the seed from a zygote is part of this process of reproduction in seedlings, both the gymnosperm and the angiosperm plants. When fertilization occurs, either naturally or by means of horticultural techniques, the female reproductive cells called the somatic cells are multiplied greatly, resulting in the production of seeds. The female gametes, including both the ovary and the fallopian tube, release the germ (the pollen or seeds) into the atmosphere where it will eventually end up in the various plants that feed on this nectar.
Seeds are living organisms and they undergo a series of changes before they attain the physical attributes needed for them to germinate. During this process known as seed dormancy, protection of the seed from the harmful effects of oxygen and other elements increases. Protection from the elements can be achieved by wrapping the seed in a thick seed coat. In the case of the Sativa or tobacco seed, this coating can be heavy and hard. This thick seed coat helps seeds pass through the various stages of germination.
Seeds are extremely fragile, especially if they are of large sizes. Seed coat thickness deters birds from eating the plant, while protection from the elements hinders insects. Some seeds are very small in size so they cannot be seen by the eye; however, they are not protected and their chances of survival are significantly reduced. On the other hand, some plants, such as the peppermint plant, have large outer layers that protect the innermost layers. The outer coat of this plant also acts as a natural pesticide.
Seed dormancy depends on many factors. It mainly depends on the type of plant, its physiological make-up, the environment it grows up in, its duration and the amount of seed it contains. Each of these factors has an effect on seed germination. As mentioned above, seed coat thickness is a major factor affecting seed dormancy. However, this is only important when the seed starts in the middle of its development stage.
During this period, the seed coat is extremely fragile because of its tiny size. It easily gets damaged and destroyed by abrasion, heat, cold, moisture, fungi and other factors. The seed coat contains spines and branches that serve as protection for the seed. When the seed coat gets destroyed by abrasion, heat, cold or moisture, the seed does not germinate and the plant becomes non-productive.
During the later stages of seed dormancy, the seed coat changes into a structure called the zygote. The zygote eventually starts to grow and forms the embryo. The size of the embryo depends on the type of seed. There are also many different types of seeds including Lima, clepis, corn, amaranth, papaya, tomato, squash and pineapple that have different characteristics.
After the development of the embryo, it is now ready to be planted. The germination of the young plant starts from the central portion of the zygote where its life cycle starts from the time the germ cells reach the light bulbs. Germination of young plants also starts from the light bulb’s end.
This is where you get the problem with many species of gymnosperms. There are some species that require specific temperatures and dark temperatures for successful germination. Other gymnosperms can germinate at any temperature or light condition. The best temperature for successful fertilization of young plants is around 50 degrees Celsius. For some species of gymnosperms, you may want to use either chemical fertilizers or deep-fertilization. The best way to go about getting the right type of fertilizing for your young plant is to talk to a specialist in the field.